Melchizedek is called Yahweh in the Dead Sea Scrolls

My apologies for the poor quality of the images taken on my iPhone earlier. These are taken from the invaluable scholarly resource A Man Attested by God: The Human Jesus of the Synoptic Gospels by Dr J.R. Daniel Kirk. Many Jewish figures are called ‘God’ in the Jewish scriptures and other non-canonical Jewish writings, disproving the often made Christian claim (by Richard Bauckham for example) that these titles (and their roles) are the exclusive preserve of God Himself. In the Bible and in the DSS they are not.

 

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Categories: Biblical scholarship, Dead Sea Scrolls, History, Judaism

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19 replies

  1. A message to Sam Shaumon: here’s the trick – you get to make comments to this post if you lay off the gratuitous insults.

    Is it really that hard?

    Liked by 2 people

  2. Wow Paul your finally catching on, and Who is Jesus compared to in Hebrews?

    Like

  3. Very interesting !
    Thank you for shareing it.
    Lot things could be said about this.

    Liked by 2 people

  4. Paul as much as I would love Melchizedek to be associated with the Divine Name. I think you might want to return this book.

    Looking at the text of 11Q13 translated by Geza Vermes

    “II…And concerning that which He said, In [this] year of Jubilee [each of you shall return to his property (Lev. xxv, 13); and likewise, And this is the manner of release:] every creditor shall release that which he has lent [to his neighbour. He shall not exact it of his neighbour and his brother], for God’s release [has been proclaimed] (Deut. xv, 2). [And it will be proclaimed at] the end of days concerning the captives as [He said, To proclaim liberty to the captives (Isa. lxi, 1). Its interpretation is that He] will assign them to [5] the Sons of Heaven and to the inheritance of Melchizedek; f[or He will cast] their [lot] amid the po[rtions of Melchize] dek, who will return them there and will proclaim to them liberty, forgiving them [the wrong-doings] of all their iniquities. And this thing will [occur] in the first week of the Jubilee that follows the nine Jubilees. And the Day of Atonement is the e[nd of the] tenth [Ju] bilee, when all the Sons of [Light] and the men of the lot of Mel[chi] zedek will be atoned for. [And] a statute concerns them [to prov] ide them with their rewards. For this is the moment of the Year of Grace for Melchizedek. [And h] e will, by his strength, judge the holy [10] ones of God, executing judgement as it is written concerning him in the Songs of David, who said, ELOHIM has taken his place in the divine council; in the midst of the gods he holds judgement (Psalms lxxxii, 1). And it was concerning him that he said, (Let the assembly of the peoples) return to the height above them; EL (god) will judge the peoples (Psalms vii, 7–8). As for that which he s[aid, How long will you] judge unjustly and show partiality to the wicked? Selah (Psalms lxxxii, 2), its interpretation concerns Belial and the spirits of his lot [who] rebelled by turning away from the precepts of God to… And Melchizedek will avenge the vengeance of the judgements of God… and he will drag [them from the hand of] Belial and from the hand of all the sp[irits of] his [lot]. And all the ‘gods [of Justice’] will come to his aid [to] attend to the de[struction] of Belial. And the height [15] is… all the sons of God… this… This is the day of [Peace/Salvation] concerning which [God] spoke [through Isa] iah the prophet, who said, [How] beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of the messenger who proclaims peace, who brings good news, who proclaims salvation, who says to Zion: Your ELOHIM [reigns] (Isa. lii, 7). Its interpretation; the mountains are the prophets… and the messenger is the Anointed one of the spirit, concerning whom Dan[iel] said, [Until an anointed one, a prince (Dan. ix, 25)]… [And he who brings] good [news], who proclaims [salvation]: it is concerning him that it is written…[To comfort all who mourn, to grant to those who [20] mourn in Zion] (Isa. lxi, 2–3). To comfort [those who mourn: its interpretation], to make them understand all the ages of t[ime]…In truth… will turn away from Belial… by the judgement[s] of God, as it is written concerning him, [who says to Zion]; your ELOHIM reigns. Zion is…, those [25] who uphold the Covenant, who turn from walking [in] the way of the people. And your ELOHIM is [Melchizedek, who will save them from] the hand of Belial. As for that which He said, Then you shall send abroad the trump [et in] all the land (Lev. xxv, 9)…”

    Vermes, Geza. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English: Complete Edition (pp. 532-534). Penguin UK. Kindle Edition.

    The text in question I believe is found at the end…

    [And he who brings] good [news], who proclaims [salvation]: it is concerning him that it is written…[To comfort all who mourn, to grant to those who [20] mourn in Zion] (Isa. lxi, 2–3). To comfort [those who mourn: its interpretation], to make them understand all the ages of t[ime]…In truth… will turn away from Belial… by the judgement[s] of God, as it is written concerning him, [who says to Zion]; your ELOHIM reigns. Zion is…, those [25] who uphold the Covenant, who turn from walking [in] the way of the people. And your ELOHIM is [Melchizedek, who will save them from] the hand of Belial. As for that which He said, Then you shall send abroad the trump [et in] all the land (Lev. xxv, 9)…”

    Notice “And your ELOHIM is [Melchizedek,” I know you think ELOHIM is the divine name but its NOT.

    Geza Vermes commentary is as follows…

    The heavenly deliverer is Melchizedek. Identical with the archangel Michael, he is the head of the ‘sons of Heaven’ or ‘gods of Justice’ and is referred to as elohim and el. The same terminology occurs in the Songs for the Holocaust of the Sabbath. These Hebrew words normally mean ‘God’, but in certain specific contexts Jewish tradition also explains elohim as primarily designating a ‘judge’.

    Vermes, Geza. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English: Complete Edition (p. 532). Penguin UK. Kindle Edition.

    Now this could be bias on Geza Vermes part as a Jew not translating the divine name but I’m not so sure on that.

    Either way might want to challange the author of your book on his translation or at least post his footnote.

    Thanks, keep up the good work demonstrating that JEWS who deny Christ the divine Messiah are heretics.

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  5. Jazak Allah khyran br. Paul.
    It’s very important and again it’s very interesting!
    I’ve always been thinking that there’s some thing wrong about this figure called ( Melchizedek), and whether it belongs to the corruption of the bible or not. From where did the jewish bible get this figure, and what has he to do with Abraham pbuh?
    Also, what does it mean ( Melkireash’) ? In Arabic as I know that melkichizdek = Malik alsadiq (i.e the righteous king).

    Liked by 1 person

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