Jesus Is Not The “Son Of Man” Daniel 7:13-14

Kaleef K. Karim

Trinitarian Jesus-worshippers hold to the belief that Daniel 7:13-14 proves the deity of Jesus, and that he should be “worshipped”. According to trinitarians, since the Aramaic word “פלח” (Pelach) is used in the passage, then that proves the deity of the Messiah. They say, “the word פלח (Pelach) is used for God alone, and it has never been used for humans (besides Jesus).” As we will examine the verse, you will find out that the word פלח (Pelach) is used for others beside God, saints, and ministers etc.

“13 In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence. 14 He was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all nations and Peoples of every language worshiped (Pelach or Pelakh) him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed.” – Daniel 7:13-14 New International Version (©2011)

The above translation is not translate accurately. Why do trinitarians deliberately twist, and translate “Pelach” for a human being as “worshipped?” That is just distorting the text. The majority of translations render “Pelach” as “serve.” A better translation would be:

“And to him was given dominion and glory and a kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him; his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom one that shall not be destroyed.” – Daniel 7:14 English Standard Version (©2001) 

Question needs to be asked, does “Obeying” Jesus make him God? No. The majority of Bible translations, even the famous KJV renders the word “serve” for Daniel 7:14. Since when did “serving” make a person God? Here is a typical missionary response I will get. They will say something along the lines of, “Hold on a minute, the word פלח (Pelach) is only used for God alone.” Daniel 7:14 reads as follows:

“And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.” – Daniel 7:14 American King James Version  

Lexicons on the word פלח pĕlach

1. Hebrew-English Lexicon:

פלח (Pelach) ch., served, worshipped.[1]

2. Brown Francis:

פלח vb. Cleave (Ar… cleave; Aram. Pelach (usu.),… are til work, serve.[2]

Notice how Brown Francis has translated the word פלח (Pelach) as “til work, serve”, he doesn’t mention anything about ‘worship.’

3. John Parkhurst:

i. To cleave, cut, or split. Occ. 2 k. Iv. 39. Job xvi. 13. Psal. Cxli. 7. Prov. Vii. 23. As a N. פלח A piece split off, a fragment, a slice. Occ Jud. Ix. 53. 1 Sam. Xxx. 12. 2 Sam. Xi. 21. Cant. Iv. 3. Job xli. 15. Like the nether פלח mill-stone, so-called either from breaking the corn in pieces of stone.
ii Pelach In a hip. Sense To cast or fling off with violence, as it were a splinter in cleaving wood (comp. Psal. Cxli 7.), to split off. Occ Job xxxix 3.
iii. Chald. Pelach to serve or worship. Dan. Iii. 12, 28. Vi 16, et al. [3]

Reading the above Hebrew-English Lexicons (dictionaries) it is quite clear that the scholars who translated the Hebrew word “pelach” does not only mean “worship” but as shown, it has other various meanings, such as “till work”, serve”, “cut”, “cleave” and “split.”

Christian Scholars commenting on Daniel 7:13-14

Daniel 7:13-14 has nothing to do with the future Prophecy of the Messiah. How do we know that? Well, all Christians have to do is read chapter 7 from verse 1 to verse 28, and trinitarians will realise the “Son of Man” is referring to the “Holy Saints”.

1. James L. Mays, Ph.D. is the Cyrus McCormick Professor of Hebrew and the Old Testament Emeritus at Union Theological Seminary in Richmond, Virginia, he writes:

“It seems clear here that the one to whom was given dominion and glory and kingdom… and his kingdoms one that shall not be destroyed (7:14 rsv) is a human being namely, the Saints of the Most High (vv.18,22,27). That identification emerges in the exposition of the dream that Daniel receives from one of the heavenly court. The interpreter assures this community through the writer of the Book of Daniel that in a very short time- a time, two times, and half a time (v.25) – the dominion would be taken from the hands of the tyrant and given to the Saints to rule forever and ever. In short these people are the wave of the future and the future is at hand.” [4]

2. Arstein Justnes quotes Stedeul in “The time of Salvation”:

“Whatever difficulties exist with the redactional stages of this chapter in the Book of Daniel and however complicated the problem of the intended meaning of ’like a (son of) man’ v. 13 could be, one finding certain: the interpretation of the vision, Dn 7,18 speaks about a final and everlasting kingdom which will be given to ‘the saints of the Most high.’ In v. 21.22 the same group is called ‘the Saints’, in v.28 “the people of the saints of the Most high.’ They hall receive and retain forever the kingly power (v. 18.20), judgement (v. 22) and sovereignty, the greatness of all kingdoms under heaven shall be given to them, and all sovereignties shall SERVE and obey THEM (v.27). [5]

3. Biblical Scholar Arthur Samuel Peake’s commentary:

“13. Like into a son of man: the AV was wrong in translating ‘like unto son of man,’ and thus suggesting that the passage referred to the ‘son of man’ of the Gospels. The phrase simply denotes a figure in human form. There is no reference to the Messiah. In the interpretation of the vision in 18, this phrase has no place at all. The kingdom that is here given unto ‘one like unto a son of man’ is in 18 given to ‘the saints of the Most High.’” [6]

As we have read, the above scholars have made it abundantly clear that the passage does not refer to Jesus (Messiah). All three have stated that the passage (Daniel 7) is reference to the “Holy Saints”.
The “Holy Saints” receive “Pelach”:

Daniel 7:27 is very clear that the saints receive “Pelach”, but the new translations of the Bible, have twisted the passage and made it out that Jesus is the one who is receiving this “service”, not the Saints. Let’s now read how they deceptively twist Daniel 7:27:

New International Version (©2011) Then the sovereignty, power and greatness of all the kingdoms under heaven will be handed over to the holy people of the Most High. His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom, and all rulers will worship and obey him.’

New Living Translation (©2007) Then the sovereignty, power, and greatness of all the kingdoms under heaven will be given to the holy people of the Most High. His kingdom will last forever, and all rulers will serve and obey him.“

We see from the above passages that the “Kingdom under heaven” will be handed over to the “Holy people” i.e., the “the saints”. At the end of the verse, trinitarians have added the word “him” to make it out to people that the person, that the passage is referring to is the Messiah, and thus he should receive “worship”. Now here is the problem, if we take a closer look in the Aramaic text, the word “him” is not even there. It is not even part of the text. Daniel 7 verse 27 ends with the words, “and all rulers will serve and obey” and stop! So if we just take a look at the passage without the word “Him” added by trinitarians, it is crystal clear that the ones who will receive “Pelach”, just like Daniel 7:14 are the “Saints.”

Here is a screenshot, word for word from a Christian website, for Daniel 7:27. See for yourselves the word “him” is not in the passage:

daniel 7 27 pelach

[7]

If you read all the way to the end of verse 27, you will realise in the original Aramaic text, the word “Him” is not part of the text.


“Holy Saints” receive Pelach

This next section I will show a list of different Bible translations that agree, and say that Daniel 7:27 refers to the ”Holy saints” who will receive “Pelach”. Look out for the word “them” at the end of each different Bible translation:

 

1. Concordant Version of the Old Testament Daniel 7:27 And the Kingdom and the jurisdiction and the majesty of the kingdom under the entire heavens will be granted to the people of the saints of the supremacies. Their kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all other authorities shall serve and hearken to them.

2. New Century version Daniel 7:27 – Then the holy people who belong to the Most High God will have the power to rule. They will rule over all the kingdoms under heaven with power and greatness, and their power to rule will last forever. People from all the other kingdoms will respect and serve them.’

3. The Message Daniel 7:27 – Then the royal rule and the authority and the glory of all the kingdoms under heaven will be handed over to the people of the High God. Their royal rule will last forever. All other rulers will serve and obey them.’

4. English revised version Daniel 7:27 – Then God’s special people will rule the kingdom. And they will rule over all the people from all the kingdoms of earth. This kingdom will last forever. And people from all the other kingdoms will respect and serve them.’

5. God’s word Translation Daniel 7:27 – The kingdom, along with the power and greatness of all the kingdoms under heaven, will be given to the holy people of the Most High. Their kingdom is eternal. All other powers will serve and obey them.”

6. Complete Jewish Bible (CJB) Daniel 7:27 Then the kingdom, the rulership and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven will be given to the holy people of the Most High. Their kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all rulers will serve and obey them.

7. English Standard Version Anglicised (ESVUK) Daniel 7:27 And the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; their kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey them.’

8. Expanded Bible (EXB) Daniel 7:27 Then the holy •people [ones] who belong to the Most High God [v. 18] will have the power to rule. They will rule over all the kingdoms under heaven with power and greatness, and their power to rule will last forever. People from all the other kingdoms will respect [fear] and serve [obey] them.’

9. Good News Translation (GNT) Daniel 7:27 The power and greatness of all the kingdoms on earth will be given to the people of the Supreme God. Their royal power will never end, and all rulers on earth will serve and obey them.”

10. Names of God Bible (NOG) Daniel 7:27 The kingdom, along with the power and greatness of all the kingdoms under heaven, will be given to the holy people of the Elyonin. Their kingdom is eternal. All other powers will serve and obey them.”

11. New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) Daniel 7:27 The kingship and dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the holy ones of the Most High; their kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey them.”

12. New Revised Standard Version, Anglicised (NRSVA) Daniel 7:27 The kingship and dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the holy ones of the Most High; their kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey them.’

13. New Revised Standard Version, Anglicised Catholic Edition (NRSVACE) Daniel 7:27 The kingship and dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the holy ones of the Most High; their kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey them.’

14. Revised Standard Version (RSV) Daniel 7:27 And the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; their kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey them.’

15. Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition (RSVCE) Daniel 7:27 And the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; their kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey them.’

We see from the above Bible translations clear evidence that the “Holy Saints” are the ones who receive this “Pelach.”

Question for trinitarians: if the person in Daniel 7:14 receives “Pelach” and thus makes him God, what about the Saints that receive the same in verse 27, are they all Gods? Obviously it is clear now that the Hebrew word ‘Pelach’ as claimed by trintarians being only used for God alone is false.

Montogomery James Alan, a Christian scholar comments on Daniel 7:27:

“Note; inf. V.27 the people of the saints are the object of this SERVICE…” [8]

Notice how James Alan says the people in verse 27 receive this “service” (pelach).

“Holy Saints” will be given Authority & rule forever:

The hard-headed missionaries will say, “what about verse 14:- “He was given authority, glory and sovereign power… His rule is eternal–it will never end. His kingdom will never be destroyed.”

That still does not make the person God! If we use the same Christian logic, what about the Saints who will be given authority to reign forever, just like in verse 14? How can the person that is “GIVEN AUTHORITY” be God? If the person is given that authority, and  given the Kingdom, that means the person at the first place never owned it, and the person is subservient and under God’s authority. Let’s read the following passages:


Daniel 7:18
“But the saints of the Most High will receive the kingdom and will possess it forever-yes, for ever and ever.’“

Daniel 7:22 “until the Ancient of Days came and pronounced judgement in favour of the saints of the Most High, and the time came when they possessed the kingdom.”

Daniel 7:27 “And the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; their kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey them.’“

The evidences presented is quite overwhelming! This thoroughly refutes the idea trinitarians hold on to, that the passage somehow approves/sanctions the worshipping of the Messiah.

A) Daniel 7:13-14 does not prove Jesus’s deity. B) The passage does not refer to the Messiah (Jesus) but the saints, this is according to the 3 Christian Scholars quoted. C) The Aramaic word Pelach (serve) is not exclusively for God alone, but used for the “Holy saints” as-well!

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References:

[1] London, S. Bagster & sons limited; New York, J. Pott & co Hebrew English Lexicon (1898), page 210
[2] Brown, Francis, 1849-1916; Robinson, Edward, 1794-1863; Driver, S. R. (Samuel Rolles), 1846-1914; Briggs, Charles A. (Charles Augustus), 1841-1913; Gesenius, Wilhelm, 1786-1842. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament: with and appendix containing the Biblical Aramiac (1906), page 812
[3] Parkhurst, John, 1728-1797 An Hebrew and English Lexicon, page 549
[4] Jame L Mays, Harper collins Bible commentary page 630
[5] Ǻrstein Justnes. The time of salvation, page 164
[6] Arthur Samuel Peake. A Commentary on the Bible, page 529
[7] http://www.blueletterbible.org/Bible.cfm?b=Dan&c=7&v=27&t=KJV#conc/27
[8] Montgomery, James A. (James Alan), (1866-1949) A Critical and exegetical commentary on the book of Daniel (1927), page 304

This article was originally published on: discover-the-truth.com

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20 replies

  1. Br. Eric this is your field area. Have fun 🙂

    Liked by 3 people

  2. This is very poor scholarship and if you just read the book of Daniel you would see this.

    > Daniel 7:13-14 has nothing to do with the future Prophecy of the Messiah. How do we know that? Well, all Christians have to do is read chapter 7 from verse 1 to verse 28, and trinitarians will realise the “Son of Man” is referring to the “Holy Saints”.

    It is not one of the other; it is both. The Son of Man receives the kingdom on behalf of the saints. Daniel 10 shows how behind each nation there is a spiritual ruler who acts for the nation. The Son of Man acts for God’s kingdom. This is the Messiah according to the rest of scripture.

    To understand the entire chapter note that it begins with beasts who rule over creation. Then a man comes. That is, it is Genesis 2-3 again and the redemption of the Garden of Eden. The Son of Man is the second Adam who does what Adam failed to do. This is humanity coming to it destiny.

    > Here is a screenshot, word for word from a Christian website, for Daniel 7:27. See for yourselves the word “him” is not in the passage:

    The screenshot only includes the root words not the pronouns attached to them. “Him” comes from the pronoun attached to the preposition governing “serve” and “obey”.

    > Br. Eric this is your field area. Have fun

    This is not fun. This is mischief.

    Like

    • You should take your objection to the Christian scholars who said this has nothing to with Jesus.

      Furthermore, what expertise do you have to refute 15 Biblical translations for Daniel 7:27? Those scholars have dedicated decades on decades to Hebrew and Aramiac language, they say that these Saints also receive Pelacah. Thus they conclude that the person(s) who receives Pelach in Dan 7:13-14 does NOT mean they receive worship.

      Here are the translations, notice the saints receive “pelach” (look for the word “THEM” at the end):

      1. Concordant Version of the Old Testament Daniel 7:27 And the Kingdom and the jurisdiction and the majesty of the kingdom under the entire heavens will be granted to the people of the saints of the supremacies. Their kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all other authorities shall serve and hearken to THEM.

      2. New Century version Daniel 7:27 – Then the holy people who belong to the Most High God will have the power to rule. They will rule over all the kingdoms under heaven with power and greatness, and their power to rule will last forever. People from all the other kingdoms will respect and serve THEM.’

      3. The Message Daniel 7:27 – Then the royal rule and the authority and the glory of all the kingdoms under heaven will be handed over to the people of the High God. Their royal rule will last forever. All other rulers will serve and obey THEM.’

      4. English revised version Daniel 7:27 – Then God’s special people will rule the kingdom. And they will rule over all the people from all the kingdoms of earth. This kingdom will last forever. And people from all the other kingdoms will respect and serve THEM.’

      5. God’s word Translation Daniel 7:27 – The kingdom, along with the power and greatness of all the kingdoms under heaven, will be given to the holy people of the Most High. Their kingdom is eternal. All other powers will serve and obey THEM.”

      6. Complete Jewish Bible (CJB) Daniel 7:27 Then the kingdom, the rulership and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven will be given to the holy people of the Most High. Their kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all rulers will serve and obey THEM.

      7. English Standard Version Anglicised (ESVUK) Daniel 7:27 And the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; their kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey THEM.’

      8. Expanded Bible (EXB) Daniel 7:27 Then the holy •people [ones] who belong to the Most High God [v. 18] will have the power to rule. They will rule over all the kingdoms under heaven with power and greatness, and their power to rule will last forever. People from all the other kingdoms will respect [fear] and serve [obey] THEM.’

      9. Good News Translation (GNT) Daniel 7:27 The power and greatness of all the kingdoms on earth will be given to the people of the Supreme God. Their royal power will never end, and all rulers on earth will serve and obey THEM.”

      10. Names of God Bible (NOG) Daniel 7:27 The kingdom, along with the power and greatness of all the kingdoms under heaven, will be given to the holy people of the Elyonin. Their kingdom is eternal. All other powers will serve and obey THEM.”

      11. New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) Daniel 7:27 The kingship and dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the holy ones of the Most High; their kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey THEM.”

      12. New Revised Standard Version, Anglicised (NRSVA) Daniel 7:27 The kingship and dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the holy ones of the Most High; their kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey THEM.’

      13. New Revised Standard Version, Anglicised Catholic Edition (NRSVACE) Daniel 7:27 The kingship and dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the holy ones of the Most High; their kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey THEM.’

      14. Revised Standard Version (RSV) Daniel 7:27 And the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; their kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey THEM.’

      15. Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition (RSVCE) Daniel 7:27 And the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; their kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey THEM.’

      Liked by 4 people

    • This joke, this vile human being who posted on his Twitter that the Trinity equals incest and pedophilia, is inhabited by Satan himself.

      He blocked a warrior of Christ who demolished this pathetic attempt of denying Christ’s deity since Christ and his apostles confirmed that JESUS was the son of man prophecized in mark.

      But let’s stick to early Jewish interpretation of this passage and show how this was referring to a HUMAN BEING , the Messiah NOT the saints.

      Like

    • ‘Son of man’ is not God in the Bible.

      Like

    • Paul Williams you are so ignorant of Islam you think you have any knowledge of biblical scriptures ?

      Look back at early rabbinic interpretations, all say the same chump.
      Be a man and come debate Sam shamoun on paltalk instead of blocking him here destroying your pathetic satanic attempts at denying your Lord .

      Like

    • you have a foul mouth. The HS needs to clean you out.

      Liked by 1 person

  3. You used an ad hominem argument and do not address the issues I have raised.

    Dan 7:27 The kingdom, dominion, and greatness of the kingdoms under all of heaven will be given to the people, the holy ones of the Most High. His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom, and all rulers will serve and obey Him.’ HSCB

    Dan 7:27 Then the sovereignty, power and greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven will be handed over to the saints, the people of the Most High. His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom, and all rulers will worship and obey him.’ NIV

    Dan 7:27 And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him. KJV

    etc.

    Instead of mocking take the time to look at both sides and seek to understand.

    Like

    • SG,
      The question is why you use ( him) not ( them)?
      Could we use ( them) as some biblical scholars have said ? Especially if we follow the pattern of the passage ‘will be handed over to the holy people of the Most High’

      Like

    • Thanks Abdullah for this question. The Aramaic attached pronoun “he” is ambiguous in this verse. It could refer to the Son of Man or to his kingdom or the saints. It becomes a matter of interpretation of how you think the verse flows. As such it is not a verse to use as a proof text.

      On other note, I mentioned how Daniel 10 speaks of spiritual rulers who represent nations but forgot to mention the greatest example of this: Adam. Adam is the name of a man but also the word for mankind. You see this in translations of Genesis 1-3. Some will say “Adam” others “man”. Adam is both an individual and all of humanity. This theme is also seen in the books of Kings and Chronicles where the messiah represents the nation. This is why you cannot make the Son of Man, the individual, compete with the people of God, the saints. It is both, and it always has been throughout the books of the prophets.

      Like

    • Salām yā `Abdullah

      To answer your question (why use him rather than them? can we use them?), the Aramaic leh (leh) is a preposition with a suffix that is literally masculine singular. So too, malkūteh (מלכותה) employs a masculine singular possessive suffix. All dominions shall serve “him” and that kingdom belongs to “him”. That begs the question of what the masculine singular entity in question is.

      Now, these terms come on the heels of mention of `am qadīshey `Elyonīn (עם קדישי עליונין), the ‘nation’ or [group] of people of the holy ones of the Most High. `Am is masculine singular, qadīshīn (rendered qadīishey in the possessive) is plural, and `Elyonīn, though literally plural, is often understood to be singular like Elohīm (hence Franz Rosenthal calling it a Hebraism). Ergo, there are apparently two singular nouns present. One could assume leh and malkūteh refer back to the `am (i.e. the nation or group of people), in which case an English translation might render it “it” or, less literally, “them” to reflect that it is referring to a group of persons, or the text can be read hyperliterally as having those terms refer back to the last noun mentioned in the group, the Most High (`Elyonīn).

      In short, the answer is that how one translates the text is open to interpretation, and what ideas one wish to convey, but the most literal rendering would be “him”.

      Like

    • Hi Denis,

      You wrote:

      //the Aramaic leh (leh) is a preposition with a suffix that is literally masculine singular.///

      Are you aware that “leh” could also mean “them” as it is stated in a number of Lexicons?

      I remember 4 years ago, I had a debate with a Christian scholar (i dont think he was fluent in Hebrew or Aramaic, he did know Greek) he attempted to argue with me that Daniel 7:27 should have “him” as it perfectly suits the verse because “leh” is in there. When I looked up few lexicons I found that “leh” also carries the meaning of “them”. When I showed the evidence to him he ended up blocking me on Facebook.

      Peace

      Like

    • Greetings Pir

      Leh is literally third person masculine singular (the plural would be l’hon or l’hom).

      However, there are instances where it might be translated “them,” e.g. if it refers to a masculine singular entity comprising multiple persons (e.g. a group of people) that we might prefer to refer to as “them” rather than “it” in English.

      Like

    • I forgot to mention this before but the Jews who translated LXX understood the end sentence of Daniel 7:27 to be about the king/Son of Man.

      … His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom, and all rulers will worship and obey him.’

      This is how they understood it many years before Christianity.

      Like

    • SG, Denis :
      “It becomes a matter of interpretation of how you think the verse flows. As such it is not a verse to use as a proof text” SG.
      “answer is that how one translates the text is open to interpretation, and what ideas one wish to convey, but the most literal rendering would be “him” Denis.

      If this is the case, then that passage doesn’t prove christians’ point since in its best it’s disputed , don’t you think?
      Also, this translation makes sense if you go with its pattern.
      ‘3. The Message Daniel 7:27 – Then the royal rule and the authority and the glory of all the kingdoms under heaven will be handed over to the people of the High God. Their royal rule will last forever. All other rulers will serve and obey THEM.’

      Like

  4. Regarding the FL7 root, verbs from that root can mean to serve or to worship. It is worthy to note that outside of Daniel 7, all other Biblical Aramaic texts to employ such a verb employ it in reference to serving specifically a deity (Biblical Aramaic even has a word from the root, falHan, which refers to a sort of religious service). While a verb from this root does not necessarily have to mean worship, the idea that it can mean such is not a purely Christian one (e.g. Franz Rosenthal’s Grammar of Biblical Aramaic, Reuven AlQalay’s Mīlon `Ivrī-Anglī Shalem and Marcus Jastow’s dictionary are among the Jewish sources that treat worship as a possible meaning; it may also be worth noting that the Septuagint renders Dan 7:14’s yiflHūn λατρευουσα, though Theodotion rendered it δουλεθσουσιν).

    ***************************

    Regarding the question of whether the passage is a prophecy about the future figure, Christians should take such a position, in light of how the verse is employed in the New Testament (e.g. at the trial of Christ, in Mark 14:62). But, beyond that, a number of Jewish exegetes across history also saw it as a reference to the Messiah. This can be gleaned simply from glancing at how the verse is rendered in Miqrā’ot Gedolot, as I show here:

    Now, it is popular in certain modern circles to take the view that the text of Daniel 7 goes on to explain that the “son of man” like figure in verse merely represents the saints, collectively. I think this view is mistaken. I propose that the servants of verse 10 actually represent the holy ones of verse 27. Consider the following:

    (1) Verse 10 states that, after the appearance of those believing servants, the court sat down to give judgement (דינא יתב). The exact same phrase (דינא יתב) appears in verse 26.

    (2) After the forming of the court, in verse 10, the authority of the beasts is seized (העדיו שלטנהון). Essentially the same phrase is used in verse 26 to describe the saints seizing the authority of the other beast (שלטנה יהעדון with the chief difference being the tense of the verse).

    (3) In verse 11, after the servants form their court, the last beast is destroyed (הובד). The same verbal root is employed in verse 26 that after the holy ones form their court the last beast is going to be destroyed (להובדה).

    (4) All of the above, as per verses 10 and 11, happens before the son of man like figure is introduced (e.g. the holy ones destroy the beast as per verse 26, and the beast is destroyed in the time of the ministering servants before the son of man like figure appears as per verse 11).

    Ergo, I would sum up as follows:

    (5) When we read verses 10/11, we see that the court/judgement is established BEFORE the Son of Man appears. We also see that the fourth beast is destroyed BEFORE the Son of Man appears.

    (6) In verse 26, the court/judgement is established by the holy ones, and the holy ones are the ones who destroy the beast.

    (7) Ergo, the holy ones are not the Son of Man like figure, as their actions precede his arrival. Their actions coincide with the actions carried out in the time of the ministering servants in verse 10. Thus the best conclusion is that the holy ones are those ministering servants (i.e. the ministering servants of the vision represent the holy ones).

    Now, I understand, this leaves open the question of verses 18 and 27 saying the holy ones will possess/receive the kingdom, forever. To explain that, I would like to return back to the aforementioned Jewish compilation, Miqrā’ot Gedolot:

    The image above is taken from Pirush ayn-tet, a Yiddish translation and commentary included in the Miqrā’ot Gedolot volume on Daniel. In this portion, the text is discussing Daniel 7:27. The second line is significant, as, when commenting on the portion of that verse which reads malkūteh malkūt `alam (his kingdom will be an eternal kingdom), this Yiddish commentary declares das hershung fon Mashiach vet zain eybig hershung (i.e. “the rule of the Messiah is an eternal rule”).

    Now, here’s the question we should ask: it’s one thing to say verse 14 is referring to the Messiah, but how does one slip the Messiah into verse 27? The answer is at the very heart of what many who assert that the “son of man” of Daniel 7 merely represents Israel miss about the mindset of these Jewish commentators. To get to that answer, we might also ask the question which the aforementioned modern persons wish to ask: if verse 14 (in the vision) says the “son of man” figure will possess an eternal kingdom and verses 18 and 27 (in the elucidation) state that the holy ones will inherit the kingdom eternally, isn’t it obvious that this means the “son of man” (in the vision) represents the holy ones (in the elucidation)?

    To reply to the latter question, first note that in Jewish thought, the Messianic age will see a time when pious Jews rule and the Messiah is above them. In other words, there will be a hierarchy of rulership or authority, with the Messiah at the top, and believers underneath him (e.g. in his court). This idea is also found in Christian thought (cf. Matthew 19:28 and Luke 22:30 which might lead some of our friends who are fans of critical scholarship to propose this is as early as the hypothetical “Q-source”).

    So, then, if it is possible for the Messiah and the believers underneath him to both inherit the kingdom eternally, then a statement that the servants/saints will be given the kingdom need not contradict the belief that the Messiah will possess the kingdom. This text from the Yiddish portion of Miqrā’ot Gedolot shows the extent to which Jewish commentators saw Daniel 7 as referring to a future in which both the Messiah and believers under him will be in authority, and this is why verses like 18 or 27 never caused the various Jewish commentators to back off their claim that verse 13 is referring to the Messiah. Once this is understood, the weakness of the argument that the “son of man” is simply referring to the saints becomes apparent.

    ***************************

    Regarding the claim that a reference to “him” does not appear in verse 27, simply because an online breakdown does not mention it, shows a rather stark infamiliarity with Biblical Aramaic. The text specifically states leh yiflHūn (לה יפלחון). The Aramaic leh (לה) is like the Arabic lahu (له), both being spelled the same (LH), and meaning “to him” (masculine singular).

    The translations which render verse leh yiflHūn as “serve them” are rendering the text less than literally. While the masculine singular leh could be understood as referring to the `am (עם) [nation, group of people], it can also be understood as referring to the Most High (i.e. God).

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  5. This a quality article brother,

    I just want to quickly add that we can not take book of Daniel only as our basis for understanding the use of word pelach פלח in the original Aramaic.  The book of Daniel is not a very large work, and there are significant portions of it that are not even written in Aramaic.

    It is interesting if we look at the way this Aramaic word is used in other Aramaic writings such as the Onkelos  we can come to the conclusion that pelach פלח can indeed be offered to humans as well.

    Here I have selected additional examples from Aramaic Targum Onkelos  to prove my point.

    Gen. 29:18

    וּרְחֵים יַעֲקוֹב, יָת רָחֵל; וַאֲמַר, אֶפְלְחִנָּךְ שְׁבַע שְׁנִין, בְּרָחֵל בְּרַתָּךְ, זְעֵירְתָא.

    And Jacob loved Rachel and said “I will serve you (‘apelachnak ) 7 years for Rachel your younger daughter.”

    Gen. 30:26

    הַב יָת נְשַׁי וְיָת בְּנַי, דִּפְלַחִית יָתָךְ בְּהוֹןוְאֵיזֵיל: אֲרֵי אַתְּ יְדַעְתְּ, יָת פֻּלְחָנִי דִּפְלַחְתָּךְ.

    “Give to me my wives and children for which I served (d’pelachit),  for you know the service (pelachni)  with which I served you (d’pelachitak).

    Gen. 14:4

    תַּרְתַּא עַסְרֵי שְׁנִין, פְּלַחוּ יָת כְּדָרְלָעֹמֶר; וּתְלָת עַסְרֵי שְׁנִין, מְרַדוּ.

    For 12 years they served (pelach)  Kedarla‘omer and in the 13th year they rebelled.

    In this example, the words in red indicate the presence of the root פלח in the original Aramaic and it is clearly  פלח refers to service offered to a human.

    So this mean פלח is not an exclusive term for worship or service to a deity

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  6. Brother Paul, I face a problem with comments.

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