The following excerpt was taken from Rabbi Benjamin Tudela (1130 – 1173) from his “Itinerary” (Travels in the Middle Ages, Masa’ot Binyamin or also known as Sefer ha-Masa’ot). Tudela was a medieval Jewish scholar who travelled Europe, Asia and Africa. He recounts places he had been and seen. In the following excerpt, he mentions his travel to the city of Baghdad. He recounts Caliph Emir al-Muminin al-Abbassi (Al-Mustanjid 1124 – 1170)  who was a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad, and how he the Caliph treated Jews whom were citizens of Baghdad at the time.
Rabbi Benjamin Tudela
“Baghdad, the great city and royal residence of the Caliph Emir al Muminin al Abbassi of the family of Mohammed. He is at the head of the Mohammedan religion, and all the kings of Islam obey him; he occupies a similar position to that held by the Pope over…
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